Glucose is the primary starting molecule that drives the process of glycolysis. It is a simple sugar monomer of carbohydrates that has the molecular formula, C6H12O6.
Glycolysis is the first step of cellular respiration that organisms undergo to generate energy. This chain of biochemical reactions involve the breakdown of glucose molecules into pyruvate, including the synthesis of the high-energy molecule adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Glycolysis is usually divided into two phases. The first stage involves the phosphorylation of glucose into glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, or G3P, while the second stage involves the conversion of the G3P molecules into pyruvate. One glucose molecule produces a net gain of 2 ATP at the end of glycolysis.