What Is the Standard State of Sulfur?

standard-state-sulfur Credit: shanmuga varadan asoka/CC-BY-2.0

The standard state of sulfur is solid at 298 Kelvin. Sulfur is odorless, pale yellow and brittle and is found in volcanoes, meteorites and hot springs. It is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulphide, and most sulfur is used to make sulfuric acid for fertilizers.

Sulfur is also used in black gunpowder. Burning coal and petroleum creates sulfur dioxide; this reacts with oxygen and atmospheric water to create sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid, which are components in acid rain. Jupiter's moon Io gets its color from a variety of forms of sulfur. In ancient times, sulfur was referred to as "brimstone."