Spondylolisthesis surgery repairs a vertebra that has slipped out of place to press against another vertebra. This can cause a narrowing of the spinal canal, which can lead to pain if the spinal nerves are compressed.
The surgery that treats spondylolisthesis is called a laminectomy. In a laminectomy, the surgeon opens the spinal canal and removes the bits of bone that compress the spinal nerves. He may then perform a spinal fusion. This involves attaching a piece of bone to the injured vertebrae to stabilize them. The bone can be harvested from the patient's pelvis or other bone. This eliminates the risk of rejection.