Spatial dimension geography is the study of how variables are distributed across the landscape. Examples of variables that geographers might study are national literacy levels, the distribution of inhabitants within a city, and the abundance of natural resources such as trees, water or minerals across the globe.
Spatial geography both describes and compares the distribution of variables. For example, geographers might study and describe the physical locations of fish populations and where they are in relation to one another. In addition, they might compare the distributions of fish populations in two different states. Further, they could study how the fish populations are distributed in relation to other variables such as major roads, industrial activities, water bodies, wildlife or topography.
By comparing the distributions of variables, geographers can determine how variables affect one another. For example, if fish populations are found to be more abundant where there are few roads nearby, geographers might conclude that the presence of roads causes fish populations to migrate or decline. Policy makers might use this information to maintain fish stocks in important locations. Spatial geography is often concerned with making the distribution of variables more equitable. For example, geographers might study how to distribute income more evenly, how to equalize literacy rates or how to reduce infant mortality rates.