A normal kidney is between 4 and 5 inches in length. The kidneys are located in the posterior lower abdominal cavity. Kidneys clean the blood of waste and regulate electrolytes within the body.
The kidneys are a vital part of the urinary system. They help to regulate blood pressure and also produce hormones, including calcitrol, which aids in the absorption of calcium, and erythropoietin, which helps in the formation red blood cells.
Nephrolithiasis, or kidney stones, is a common condition that interferes with normal kidney function. This occurs when minerals within the urine form stones, which can either partially or completely block the flow of urine.