The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is the deepest division in the realm of life on Earth. Together, they include every life form ever discovered. Though the two groups share a common ancestry, there are basic differences between them. Eukaryotes have nucleated cells and identifiable cell structures called organelles, while prokaryotes are more variable in their cellular structure and lack a discrete nucleus, according to About.com.Continue Reading
The three domains into which life is divided are Eukaryota, Archaea and Eubacteria. Archaea and Eubacteria are both prokaryotes. Eukaryota includes all plants, animals and fungi. Every large life form on Earth is a eukaryote, and the bulk of Earth's microbes are prokaryotes. Despite the physical size of eukaryotic organisms, the biochemical diversity of this domain is limited. Almost all eukaryotes derive energy either directly or indirectly from the sun. Plants photosynthesize, animals eat plants or plant-eating animals, and fungi efficiently decompose the remains of the other two kingdoms, explains the College of Computer, Mathematical and Natural Sciences.
Prokaryotes have evolved not just photosynthesis, primarily among the cyanobacteria, but decomposition and even the ability to extract chemical energy from rocks and geothermal vents. Such eukaryotes that are able to live near these environments do so mainly by subsisting on a food chain with either bacteria or archaea at the bottom of it.Learn more about Biology
Some common features found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are that they have cell plasma membranes, cytoplasm, DNA and ribosomes. Prokaryotes include organisms like bacteria and cynobacteria while algae, fungi and protozoans are types of eukaryotes. Although these different types of organisms have certain similarities, there are many more differences.Full Answer >
The Archaea, or archaebacteria, are the prokaryotic group most closely related to eukaryotes. This is due to the similarity of genes and metabolic processes that both Archaea and eukaryotes posses. One major similarity are the enzymes involved in transcription and translation.Full Answer >
Protein synthesis differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes due to variations of the initiation process and the method of information translation carried out by the cells. Eukaryotes are typically more complex than prokaryotes and perform a more intricate form of protein synthesis.Full Answer >
According to the University of Maryland, prokaryotic cells are around 10 to 100 times smaller than eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells have a cell wall that is chemically complex. Eukaryotic cells have a very simple cell wall or none at all.Full Answer >