In chemistry, ionic bonds and covalent bonds are both methods atoms use to combine into larger molecules by swapping or sharing outer electrons. An atom's energy level is determined by the number and configuration of electrons orbiting the atomic nucleus. As atoms collide, those with unstable electron configurations form either ionic bonds or covalent bonds with each other in order to reach stable energy levels.Continue Reading
Ionic bonds occur when atoms join together, attracted by ions with an opposite charge. For instance, a common example of an ionic bond is sodium chloride, commonly known as table salt. Here, the sodium atom has a single valence electron above a stable level, which is eight electrons. When it meets a chlorine atom, which has seven valence electrons, the chlorine atom removes the sodium atom's single valence electron. The resulting ionic compound contains two atoms with stable octets of electrons. They include a positively charged sodium ion and a negatively charged chloride ion.
A covalent bond occurs when two atoms join together to share a valence electron in order to achieve stable energy levels. For instance, a common covalent compound is water. An oxygen atom has six valence electrons, so it needs two additional valence electrons in order to achieve a stable outer energy level. Hydrogen atoms each contain one valence electron, so they each need an additional valence electron in order reach a stable configuration. Therefore, an oxygen atom can form a covalent bond with two individual hydrogen atoms, creating the covalent compound water.Learn more about Chemistry
In chemistry, adhesion refers to the tendency of unlike molecules to bond with one another, while cohesion refers to the attractive force between molecules of the same type. Surface tension, which is an essential property of water, illustrates the relationship between adhesion and cohesion.Full Answer >
Chemical bonds are formed when unstable, reactive atoms seek out stable configurations through sharing, donating or receiving valence electrons from other atoms. Bonds are broken down when a specific amount of energy known as the bond energy is applied to the bond.Full Answer >
Common examples of non-polar covalent bonds include the bonds between two identical non-metallic elements, such as those that occur between two iodine atoms and two oxygen atoms. Non-polar covalent bonds also occur between different types of atoms, such as those between carbon and hydrogen in the synthesis of organic compounds.Full Answer >
Sp3 hybridized carbon refers to the electron orbitals when the carbon atom is attached to four other atoms through single bonds. The electron orbitals in molecules are derived from quantum mechanical wave functions that describe the probability of finding the electron in any given region in space.Full Answer >