There are five primary shapes of bacteria found in nature: coccus, spirillum, vibria, bacillus and spirachaetes. These shapes can be found in a variety of configurations that help identify the bacterial species.Continue Reading
Bacteria are single cell organisms found all over Earth, and they group together in colonies. It is estimated that the number of bacterial cells inside the human body is 10 times greater than that of human cells. Most of these bacteria are located in the intestines and colon, where they break down carbohydrates and aid in the absorption and digestion of nutrients. Though these bacteria are not usually harmful to humans, they are capable of acting as opportunistic pathogens during times of compromised immune function. Most bacteria living in the human gut are anaerobes, which means that they thrive in environments that do not offer access to oxygen.
In order to reproduce, bacteria go through a process called binary fission, in which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process replicates the DNA of bacteria, and in certain species, can occur as frequently as every 20 minutes. The capacity for such rapid reproduction is the reason humans become ill so quickly when infected with an opportunistic bacterial pathogen.Learn more about Biology
Eubacteria and archaebacteria have a wide variety of shapes. However, these cell types have no membrane-bound organelles, they do not organize their DNA into a nucleus, and they are contained by cell membranes protected by cell walls. Both are relatively simple in structure, so most of their differences are chemical, not structural. In general, archaebacteria have commonalities with eukaryotes that eubacteria lack, but they also have some truly unique features.Full Answer >
Biosynthetic capacity, the nature of cell division machinery and the fact that cells grouped together form various organs and structures are factors thought to influence and limit cell size in animals. The full extent of the processes that regulate cell size are not fully understood.Full Answer >
Structural proteins are fibrous proteins, and they are the most abundant proteins found in nature. Collagens, fibronectins and laminins are all different types of structural proteins that are used in cell culture applications as attachment factors.Full Answer >
The largest cells found in nature are ostrich eggs. Before fertilization, the entire interior of the egg consists of a single cell, which can weigh up to 5 pounds. The largest single-celled organism is an animal called Syringammina fragilissima, which can grow to a width of 4 inches.Full Answer >