Seismic testing utilizes sound waves and sensors to create a three-dimensional map of an underground area to determine what kinds of mineral resources are available. Vibrations are created using special trucks or detonated explosives. Sensors receive the vibrations and take measurements. This data is fed into complex computer programs that create maps of the area, and geologists interpret the maps to discover what minerals lie beneath the surface.Continue Reading
Probes called geophones are placed several hundred feet apart to sense data. Large drills bore dozens of feet into the Earth for the charge placement. Explosive charges are dropped into the drilled holes. When the explosives detonate, the geophones sense the soundwaves coming through the ground.
Another method to produce vibrations utilizes special trucks called Vibroseis. These trucks have huge metal plates underneath them that drop down onto the ground. The heavy plates have the full weight of the truck on top of them. The plate vibrates at a specific frequency to create seismic waves.
Computers interpret the data gathered by the sensors. Originally, two-dimensional maps were created using seismic testing techniques. When more sophisticated computers were developed in the 1980s, three-dimensional models became standard. Seismic testing is done both on the Earth's surface and underwater, mainly for oil and gas exploration.Learn more about Earthquakes
According to the U.S. Geological Society, the area in the Earth's crust where an earthquake forms is called the hypocenter. Unpredictable in nature, earthquakes form when energy from the crust is released, causing vibrations on the surface of the earth. The magnitude of earthquakes can vary exponentially, and the stronger the magnitude, the more devastating the effects, especially on areas that are near the epicenter.Full Answer >
Kashmir lies on top of the area where the Indian and Eurasian continental plates collide. Immense seismic stress builds up in this area and is released through earthquakes and other seismic activity. On October 8, 2005, this release of stress caused an earthquake that resulted in the death of more than 80,000 people, thousands of injuries and catastrophic property damage.Full Answer >
Earthquakes change the Earth by affecting and destroying landscapes, structures and environments, which threatens the inhabitants of an area and the area's entire geology. An earthquake in one place can cause a series of events that resonate out and change entire environments that are nowhere near the site of the actual earthquake.Full Answer >
The BBC explains that, in addition to a significant human death toll, earthquakes destroy the environment in the surrounding area by causing fires, tsunamis and landslides. While these events have relatively short-term environmental impacts, there are also longer-reaching consequences of an earthquake on the surrounding area.Full Answer >