Seedless plants reproduce by spores, rhizomes, plantlets and fragmentation. Nonflowering plants such as ferns and fungi do not produce flowers; therefore, they do not produce seeds.
One method of seedless reproduction is through spores. Spores germinate and grow a structure that does not resemble the parent plant. This structure, a prothallium, contain all the sexual organs that give rise to a new fern plant.
Another method of seedless reproduction is through rhizomes. The rhizomes are vine-like strands that grow from the parent plant and grow along the ground. Roots grow from the bottom of these rhizomes into the ground, which then grow into new plants.
The third type of reproduction involves plantlets. As a fern grows, buds form that develop into plantlets or miniature ferns. Once a plantlet become fully formed, it falls off the parent plant. Upon reaching the ground, it forms roots and grows into a mature plant.
The last way for plants to reproduce without seeds is through fragmentation. Most of the plants that use this method are mosses and liverworts. When this plant is ready to reproduce, it forms cups where sprouts or gemmae develop. These sprouts fall off the parent plant and grow into mature plants.