The scientific name of the most common cultivated mushroom is Agaricus bisporus. Mushroom cultivation in the United States began in the late 1800s. Although there are more than 30,000 species of mushrooms, very few are eaten by humans. Some species are so rare they cost $200 per pound, as of 2014.
The morel is known as Morchella esculenta in the scientific community. The morel is a eukaryote fungus and reproduces using spores. The fleshy mushrooms belong to a family of edible mushrooms known as Morchellaceae. The word "morchella" comes from the word "morchel," which is German for mushroom.
One of the largest living organisms on Earth is the fungus Armillaria bulbosa, or the honey mushroom. One honey mushroom patch near Crystal Falls, Mich., covers 38 acres and weighs approximately 100 tons. The huge patch grew from a single spore and lives just beneath the surface of the Earth.
The shiitake mushroom is called Lentinus edodes, and the death cap is Amanita phalloides. Mushrooms are classified into two major groups of fungi, one with sacs and another with clubs. Sacs and clubs refer to structures that produce spores in mushrooms so the fungi can reproduce. Ascomycota are sac fungi, and Basidiomycota are club fungi.