Industrially, sandstone is used as a raw material for manufacturing and in construction. Naturally, sandstone functions as an aquifer and as a reservoir for oil and gas. As it frequently originates from granite, an extremely common type of rock, sandstone is one of the most common types of sedimentary rock.
Sandstone is composed of rock or organic material and sand-sized mineral grains that have been deposited from other sources. The percentage of grain, rock or organic material depends on where the sandstone originated and how long the transport process took. During this process, chemical changes and weathering affect the properties and composition of the sandstone. Natural cement that binds the sand grains together and a matrix of silt or clay particles between sand grains may also be present.
Mineral grains in sandstone are usually quartz but can be feldspar or other minerals. Quartz content in sandstone can be 90 percent or more. Sandstone with plentiful quartz is considered more mature because it has been weathered more by wind and water, which scrape away the weaker minerals, such as hornblende and biotite. Sandstone containing high amounts of feldspar is immature if it originates from a source rock with significant quartz content.