Industrially, sandstone is used as a raw material for manufacturing and in construction. Naturally, sandstone functions as an aquifer and as a reservoir for oil and gas. As it frequently originates from granite, an extremely common type of rock, sandstone is one of the most common types of sedimentary rock.Continue Reading
Sandstone is composed of rock or organic material and sand-sized mineral grains that have been deposited from other sources. The percentage of grain, rock or organic material depends on where the sandstone originated and how long the transport process took. During this process, chemical changes and weathering affect the properties and composition of the sandstone. Natural cement that binds the sand grains together and a matrix of silt or clay particles between sand grains may also be present.
Mineral grains in sandstone are usually quartz but can be feldspar or other minerals. Quartz content in sandstone can be 90 percent or more. Sandstone with plentiful quartz is considered more mature because it has been weathered more by wind and water, which scrape away the weaker minerals, such as hornblende and biotite. Sandstone containing high amounts of feldspar is immature if it originates from a source rock with significant quartz content.Learn more about Geology
Limestone's most common use is as a crushed construction material, serving as a base for roads and ballast in railroads, but it also combines with crushed shale in a kiln to make cement and serves as an aggregate material in concrete. Limestone's usefulness stems from its strength and density.Full Answer >
Calcite is a mineral used in many ways, serving as a construction material and aggregate, a pigment, agricultural soil additive and an ingredient in pharmaceutical products. Calcite is most often found in limestone and marble, with many applications in those forms.Full Answer >
Lithic sandstone is fine, grained sandstone that contains greater than 5 percent of lithic fragments. Lithic sandstones have a gray or speckled color associated with sedimentary lithic fragments. Lithic sandstones are typically formed in regions with significant tectonic activity.Full Answer >
Granite changes into sandstone by means of weathering and erosion. Through the passage of time, fragments of granite are broken down into smaller pieces, or sediments, which are transported and deposited at the bottom of the oceans or rivers. These particles form layers of sand and pebbles that undergo compaction and cementation to create sandstone.Full Answer >