You can safely store hydrogen fuel as either gas or liquid. You can also safely store hydrogen fuel on the surfaces of solids or within solids.
If you store hydrogen fuel as gas, you must get high-pressure tanks of 5,000 to 10,000 psi. You can also store hydrogen fuel as liquid at -423.4 degrees Fahrenheit. In addition, you can store hydrogen fuel as a solid by allowing it to react with metals or chemical compounds. Storing hydrogen in solids involves the use of chemical hydrogen storage, carbon-based material, and/or metal hydrides. You can also store hydrogen fuel in an alternative chemical form.
You can use an onboard automotive hydrogen storage system that The Fuel Cell Technologies Office has developed to store hydrogen fuel for driving ranges of over 300 miles while satisfying safety, performance and cost requirements.
Hydrogen’s unique properties, such as its high energy density, require you to use advanced storage methods. Storing hydrogen fuel safely requires you to understand issues related to performance, temperature and stability. You must also meet requirements related to the reversibility of hydrogen release and toxicity. Some of these required conditions are contradictory to each other and create challenges during storage.
You have a wider range of possibilities to satisfy hydrogen fuel transportation requirements if you store it in chemical compounds. Nevertheless, as of 2015, research has not yielded a single material that exhibits all the required properties.