The Rydberg Equation, or Rydberg Formula, predicts the light wavelength that results from the motion of an electron between an atom's different energy levels. Electron movement from one atomic orbital to another changes the energy of that electron.Continue Reading
When electrons shift from high energy orbitals to lower states of energy, the process creates a photon of light; conversely, movement from low-energy to high-energy orbitals absorbs a photon of light. Every element has its own fingerprint on the spectrum, which means that observing the photons of light through a diffraction grating or prism reveals the specific element involved in the reaction, through a series of colored lines.
Johannes Rydberg, a Swedish scientist, attempted to discover the mathematical relationship between successive lines on the spectrum of different elements. He discovered that the wavenumbers of consecutive lines had an integral relationship. Combining this with the Bohr model of the atom, he derived the formula (1/lambda) = RZ^2(1/n1^2 - 1/n2^2), in which lambda is the wavelength (the inverse of the wavenumber), Z is the atom's atomic number, R is Rydberg's constant (1.9073731568539 * 10^7 m^(-1), and n1 and n2 are integers, with n2 larger than n1. While this formula works well with small numbers of electrons, as with hydrogen (which only features one electron), atoms that have multiple electrons cause the formula to produce errors.Learn more about Chemical Equations
Ionization energy is an elemental property defined as the amount of energy it takes to remove the outermost electron of a gaseous atom. Cesium has the lowest ionization energy of all the elements, as it takes the least energy to remove the outermost electron of a Cesium atom.Full Answer >
Second ionization energy is the energy needed to remove a second electron from an atom after one has already been removed. It always takes energy to remove electrons from atoms, although the amount of energy varies greatly. This process is known as ionization, which makes charged ions from neutral atoms.Full Answer >
Electron affinity is defined as the amount of energy emitted when an electron is added to a neutral atom in the gaseous state to form a negative ion. The energy of an atom is determined when the atom gains or loses energy through a chemical reaction that causes the gain or loss of electrons.Full Answer >
Writing a beta decay equations involves denoting the emission of a beta particle as the loss of an electron. Beta decay involves a neutron decaying into a proton and an electron emission (beta particle); the atomic number increases by one, but the mass number remains the same. The lost electron does not affect the electrons in the atom’s shell.Full Answer >