Ribosomes are composed primarily of ribonucleic acid and proteins. They are responsible for the translation of genetic data from amino acids into simpler proteins for use in cell functions.
Ribosomes have two main subunits responsible for utilizing genetic information expressed by specific cell functions. The smaller subunit is comprised of ribonucleic acid and protein molecules and is responsible for the decoding of genetic information from a specific form of ribonucleic acid called mRNA. The larger subunit of a ribosome serves to add processed amino acids into a chain of proteins, which is eventually released into a cell's structure through a process called protein synthesis. The number of protein and RNA molecules in a ribosome varies among different organisms.