A ribosome plays a vital role in protein synthesis, a process by which proteins are produced from individual amino acids. A ribosome is a cytoplasmic granule consisting of RNA and protein. Ribosomes are one of the requirements for the protein synthesis to take place. A ribosome is a tiny particle composed of protein and up to 62 percent RNA.
Ribosomes are of two types: the free-roaming ribosomes within the cytoplasm and those bound to endoplasmic reticulum. Both ribosomes are involved in translating mRNA into protein. A ribosome structure is made of rRNA and peptide chains, with two subunits, a 30S and 50S, which bring together mRNA and tRNAs to catalyze synthesis of protein. To take part in the protein synthesis, ribosomes are bound into complete ribosomes.
The main function of transfer ribonucleic acids is to deliver the necessary amino acid to the increasing peptide chain. TRNAs are composed of modified chain with the relevant amino acids, which are covalently attached.
In prokaryotes, ribosomes are hosted in the cytoplasm, while in eukaryotes, they are found in the cytoplasm and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are also composed of their own ribosomes contained in the matrix and stroma. When not synthesizing proteins, ribosomes dissociate into small and large subunits and associate again during translation.