There are six different requirements for translation to occur in a cell, including the presence of messenger RNA and transfer RNA. Other necessary components for translation include a minimum of 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, ribosomes, protein factors and biochemical energy
The role of messenger RNA is to carry the code for ordering amino acid insertion, and the role of transfer RNA is to do the translation. During the process, there is a minimum of one transfer RNA per each of the 20 amino acids involved in the process. There are also at least 20 aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, and at least one activates and bonds to each of the amino acids.
Ribosomes are also necessary for translation and contain the binding sites for other components, such as protein factors. They are also likely responsible for forming the peptide bond as protein synthesis takes place. Protein factors that loosely bond to ribosomes are also necessary for translation. Some take on the role of initiating polypeptide chain synthesis, but others are necessary for binding the ribosomes to the incoming aminoacyl transfer RNA.
In order for translation to occur, biochemical energy is necessary and derives from nucleoside triphosphates. Charging the transfer RNA requires the formation of aminoacyl adenylate intermediate. This then releases as adenosine monophosphate.