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What is replication in biology?

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Quick Answer

Replication in biology is the process of duplicating or producing an exact copy of the DNA involving many enzymes that split down the mother cell and create 'daughter' copies. Replication is the primary and the most significant aspect of cell division.

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At the end of replication, the genetic material of a mother cell duplicates, and each daughter cell receives a copy. Cellular organelles also undergo replication. Replication ensures the transfer of genetic material from mother to daughter cells.

A part of the replication process is known as the replication fork. The process involves many enzymes, which includes an 11-sub-unit collective referred to as CMG, which untangles and separates the DNA into two strands. The replication fork resembles a zipper, with CMG appearing like a zipper slider and the individual strand appearing like the two rows of teeth of an open zipper.

Each of these individual strands then becomes the template for the daughter copies. The act of integrating a new integral strand to suit the template is executed by two different polymerase enzymes, which is in harmony with each complementary sub-unit of DNA to the chain. This results in a new double-stranded DNA molecule.

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