The relative charge of a proton is +1. This indicates that the proton is the positively charged particle in an atom, whereas the electron is the negatively charged particle.
Atoms were once thought to be the smallest building block of physical matter, but as technology advanced, humans were able to deduce that there are smaller particles. The nucleus is the center of the atom, where the positively charged proton exists, along with the neutron, which is neutral in charge. Surrounding the nucleus in widely varying paths are the electrons. The number of protons and electrons in an atom are always the same, balancing the electrical charge of the atom. An atom's number is defined by how many protons it has, and this is how each atoms place on the periodic table is decided.