According to optometrist Troy Bedinghaus, red spots on the whites of the eyes might be caused by bursting of small blood vessels, inflammation of episclera, sickle cell anemia, inflammation of pinguecula, conjunctival hemangioma or cancerous growths. These red spots are harmless in some cases, but signal a disease in others.
Bedinghaus states on About.com that the red spots are easily noticeable because of the white background of the eye, and they can cause alarm if they appear unexpectedly. Consult an eye doctor if a new red spot appears. The treatment depends on the underlying factor. Red spots are most likely caused by subconjunctival hemorrhage, which is bursting of a blood vessel.