A transport vesicle temporarily stores and transports a variety of substances, including enzymes and waste products. These materials are collectively known as cargo, according to Alberts et al. in the fourth edition of "Molecular Biology of the Cell," which is available on the National Center for Biotechnology Information website.
Vesicle is a general term for any membrane-bound small organelle. Vesicles are primarily formed by the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane. Transport vesicles are utilized in the cell to transport cargo within and outside the cell. When substances are moved outside of the cell, the process is called exocytosis, explains Alberts et al. The transport vesicles travel within the cell along the cytoskeleton.
Due to the membranous exterior of a vesicle, the vesicle can cross cell membranes by merging with the target membrane and release the cargo it carries, according to the Genetic Science Learning Center from University of Utah Health Sciences.
The processes of budding and fusion accomplish the transport of large molecules such as proteins. The interior of the vesicle is called the lumen, and this is the region of the vesicle where the cargo is temporarily stored as it is transported, notes Alberts et al.