Protein synthesis occurs in structures within cells known as ribosomes, which are found outside the nucleus. It is one of the most important cell processes. While the actual synthesis occurs outside the nucleus of the cell, the process is directed by DNA located within the nucleus.
Protein synthesis begins with transcription, or copying a part of a strand of DNA into RNA. Various strands of RNA move out of the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm. When they reach the ribosomes, the complex process of protein synthesis results in the production of new proteins. Synthesizing proteins is an intricate process. Although it is extremely complex, only a small number of mistakes actually occur.
Protein synthesis is vital for the growth and development of cells, as these proteins are their primary building blocks. Various proteins play a number of vital tasks and are responsible for all of a cell's functions.
This process occurs in all types of cells, including bacteria. For this reason, many antibiotics attempt to disrupt this process as a way to cause more errors in the proteins. If enough errors are present, the proteins are then unable to carry out their roles. This, in turn, eventually causes the bacteria cells to die.