Protein synthesis differs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes due to variations of the initiation process and the method of information translation carried out by the cells. Eukaryotes are typically more complex than prokaryotes and perform a more intricate form of protein synthesis.
Protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes involves the use of a type of genetic material known as mRNA, which copies information necessary to create a new protein from genes and transports it into a cell organelle known as a ribosome. When the mRNA reaches the ribosome, it begins the first stage of protein synthesis known as initiation, in which the ribosome attempts to properly translate the mRNA to create the desired protein.
Protein synthesis requires the ribosome to bond to a chain of amino acids and bases found in mRNA known as a codon. This allows the mRNA to match with transfer ribonucleic acids known as tRNA to continue the process of protein synthesis. The location of the codon used to translate the mRNA and synthesize a new protein differs between eukaryotes and prokaryotes, resulting in two differently occurring sequences necessary for protein synthesis. When protein synthesis is finalized in both types of cells, specific codons known as stop codons cause a reaction in the ribosome that terminates the synthesis sequence and allows the newly created protein to be released into the cell.