What Are the Properties of Organic and Inorganic Compounds?
Inorganic compounds form ionic bonds, have high melting points and are made from either single elements or compounds that do not include carbon and hydrogen. In solutions, they break down into ions that conduct electricity. Organic compounds have a carbon-based structure with covalent bonding and are often volatile in nature. Even in liquid state, they do not conduct electricity unless they are salts formed with inorganic acids and bases.
Due to the covalent bonding, most organic compounds are non-polar. Although they can sometimes ionize in water or when subjected to electrolysis, the main end product is non-polar carbon dioxide. The volatility of organic compounds is due to the weakness of the covalent bonding; the property of volatility is increased in situations in which the main attractive force between the molecules is due to weak bonds, such as hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals forces. Due to this volatility, many organic compounds, including butane, hexane, propane and octane, are used as fuels. All molecules associated with living organisms, such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, fats, proteins and DNA, are organic compounds. Inorganic compounds include salts, alloys and carbon dioxide. As solids, they are typically electrically insulating due to the fact that the ions are not as mobile.