What Are the Properties of an Ideal Gas?

Ideal gases are hypothetical substances studied by scientists and students to simplify intermolecular forces. Ideal gases are point masses that constantly move in a random, straight-line nature. The behavior of ideal gases, meaning the relationship of pressure (P), temperature (T) and volume (V) is summarized as PV=nRT, where "n" is the number of moles of gas. This equation for ideal gases will always equal one.

Ideal gases contain molecules of negligible size that possess an average molar kinetic energy that is elastic only to temperature. An ideal gas is considered a “point mass” because it is so small that its mass is virtually zero. Pressure, in relation to an ideal gas, is directly proportional to the number of molecules and the temperature. Pressure is also indirectly proportional to volume in ideal gases.

An ideal gas possesses a large number of identical molecules, and the volume occupied by these molecules is negligible compared to the volume occupied by the gas. The molecules obey Newton’s laws of motion, and they only travel in a chaotic or random nature. The molecules of an ideal gas do not interact much because of the gas’s low density.

Molecules of ideal gases only experience force during collision. These collisions are elastic, meaning they are not initiated from attractive or repulsive forces.