The process of assembling a protein from RNA is called translation. A strand of messenger RNA, or mRNA, travels from the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, the site where proteins are assembled.
An mRNA strand is synthesized from a DNA template within the nucleus of an atom in the process called transcription. The mRNA strand passes through the nuclear membrane and travels to a ribosome, where the mRNA strand attaches.
Transfer RNA, or tRNA molecules carry amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, to the ribosome. Many tRNA molecules exist, and each carries a specific amino acid. The tRNA has a side consisting of the anticodon, a three-base code that matches up with a portion of the mRNA molecule called the codon, a series of three bases that stand for an amino acid. The tRNA leaves behind the amino acid it was carrying. The tRNA molecule then goes to find another amino acid. Amino acids are added to the growing protein chain and are held together by peptide bonds.