Pressure is directly proportional to solubility; an increase in pressure also increases solubility. Conversely, a decrease in pressure also reduces solubility.Continue Reading
In an equilibrium state, solubility pertains to the quantitative measurement of the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in a particular amount of solvent. The term "solute" refers to the particle or substance that is dissolved, while "solvent" refers to the component that does the dissolving. The solubility of a material is its concentration in a solution that cannot further dissolve an additional amount of solute.
Several factors affect solubility, including solute and solvent interactions, common -ion effect, pressure and temperature. Pressure does not significantly influence the solubility of solids and liquids. Instead, its effects only become significant on the solubility of gaseous substances.
The relationship between pressure and solubility can be summarized by combining Le Chatelier's principle and Henry's Law. Le Chatelier's principle postulates that when a chemically balanced system is subjected to stress, in this case pressure, the system will change to reduce the stress. Henry's Law states that under constant temperature, the solubility of a gas is correlated to its partial pressure. Henry's Law is represented in the equation, p = kh c, where "p" denotes partial pressure, "kh" indicates Henry's law constant and "c" is the concentration of the dissolved gas. The formula demonstrates the direct relationship of pressure to concentration, as well as solubility. As pressure increases, both the concentration and solubility also increase.Learn more about Chemistry
Many gases are solutes whose solubility decreases with increasing temperature. For example, oxygen solubility in water increases as temperature decreases, enabling the existence of deep-sea aquatic life.Full Answer >
Temperature, pressure and substance composition can impact the solubility of a substance. Reactions between solutes and solvents can decrease the solubility of a substance as well.Full Answer >
When using paper chromatography, the solubility of the pigments, how attractive the paper is and the size of the particles influence the separation of pigments. The process of chromatography works to separate substance mixtures into their individual components.Full Answer >
Whether the solute is a solid or gas, its solubility in water is dependent on temperature such that an increase in temperature can make solids more soluble while gases become less soluble. This means that if the temperature of water is increased by heating it, then the solid solute will dissolve more quickly. However, for gases dissolved in water, the reverse occurs and solubility decreases with an increase in water temperature.Full Answer >