Some of the plants found in the Indian Ocean are species of mangrove trees in Madagascar's mangrove forests, India's coastal sea grass and West Australia's macroalgae. The Indian Ocean covers a variety of biologically diverse ecological regions, including Africa's eastern shores, western Australia and the southern coastlines of Asia.
A large island situated near southeastern Africa, Madagascar is entirely surrounded by the Indian Ocean and hosts coastal vegetation that is among the most diverse in the world. Its mangrove trees grow along the country's intertidal regions and may be identified by roots that intertwine throughout tidal waters at latitudes nearest the equator to the north.
Indian mangroves are abundant throughout the Sundarbans forest located near the country's southwest coasts and around the Bay of Bengal. The sands that accumulate around the river mouths by the bay may eventually form into dunes during monsoon storms to cultivate beds of sea grass, which additionally grow in lagoon meadows within the Gulf of Mannar and the Lakshadweep Islands.
The state of Western Australia also hosts sea grass populations around coastal waters extending into the Indian Ocean. In addition to sea grass, its aquatic flora consists of various algae species, such as red subtidal alga, green marine alga and brown alga, all of which are native to Australian ecosystems.