How Does a Plant's Organ System Work?

A plant's organ system works with the roots anchoring the plant and absorbing water and nutrients, while the shoots transfer the nutrients to the leaves, which transfer light into energy via photosynthesis. A plant’s roots, leaves and stems, the three basic plant organs, work together to allow the plant to function. The plant’s shoot system, which includes the leaves, stems, and flowers, is divided into two sections: the non-reproductive portion and the reproductive portion. The reproductive portion includes the flowers and fruit. The non-reproductive portion includes the leaves and stems.

A plant’s roots are not only used for water and nutrient absorption but also for food storage. The root’s xylem cells help transfer water and nutrients to the shoot system. The shoot system then transports the water and nutrients to the remainder of the plant, including the leaves and flowers. With nutrients and water, the chloroplasts of the leaves are well hydrated and ready for photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, the plant converts light energy into chemical energy to make sugar for the plant. This process occurs in the chloroplasts of the leaves. Later, any remaining sugar that is not used is transferred back down the shoot system to the roots of the plant. Usually, the bigger the plant, the stronger its root system with roots stemming deep into the ground.