How Do Plant Cells Reproduce?

Plant cells reproduce through mitosis—a form of cell division that causes the cell to split itself into two identical daughter cells. The plant itself reproduces through meiosis, which is another form of cell division that creates gametes with half the number of chromosomes as compared to the parent.

Prior to mitosis DNA in the nucleus of a cell is duplicated to create identical copies of each chromosome. The two copies are called sister chromatids and connect at the centromere. In this stage, the chromosomes are not condensed but form a loose tangle throughout the nucleus.

As mitosis begins, the DNA molecules condense into separate chromosomes. The next phase begins when the chromosomes begin to condense. The nucleoli in the nucleus vanish at this stage, and microtubules begin attaching themselves to individual chromatids. The chromosomes are lined up and pulled apart by fibers and microtubules, and the chromatids are separated onto opposing sides of the cell.

Cell walls are then built to create a divide between the two sides of the cell. The cell splits into two pieces, and the nuclear membrane reappears. When the cell has been divided, mitosis ends, and the cells return to interphase where the DNA is replicated.