The phase of the bryophyte life cycle that is dominant is the haploid gametophyte. Bryophytes reproduce through spores and they do not produce flowers or seeds. Gametophytes produce sperm and eggs or gametes in a special cell called a gametangium.
Plants such as mosses, liverworts and hornworts are bryophytes. Bryophytes make their own food through the process of photosynthesis with the exception of one particular liverwort called cryptothallus, which depends on the ectomycorrhizal fungi for food. Bryophytes thrive in less polluted areas and commonly grow on substrates such as tree trunks, rotting wood, rock and soil.
Bryophytes do not have true roots; instead, they have root-like protuberances called rhizoids that do not take out water and minerals from the substrate. To reproduce, bryphotes require a damp environment.