According to Springfield Technical Community College, the visual receptor cells are located at the proximal end of the retina. These cells are called photoreceptor cells.
Photoreceptor cells are known by this name because they receive photons. When light hits the retina, the photons travel through the retina, hitting the photoreceptor cells at the end of it. Overstimulation of the photoreceptor cells is prevented by the adjacent presence of the choroid coat, which absorbs any scattered light that passes by the photoreceptor cells. Rods and cones are the two types of photoreceptor cells, with rods used for peripheral vision in black and white and cones used for central, color vision.