A female egg cell contains many organelles such lysosomes, mitochondria, haploid nucleus and smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula. The other organelles include lipofuschin, microtubules, golgi apparatus, ribosomes and others.
The human egg cell, or ovum, is a reproductive cell that combines with sperm to cause fertilization and the formation of zygote. The haploid nucleus contains half of the chromosomes as compared to nucleus of somatic cells. Mitochondria, the powerhouse of the cell, provide necessary energy for a cell’s metabolic requirements. Microtubules are the constituents of the skeletal system present in the cytoplasm of the cell. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the formation and packaging of proteins, while the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is specialized for storage and formation of steroids. Ribosomes produce proteins. The golgi apparatus receives proteins from ribosomes and the rough endoplasmic reticulum then processes them so they can be utilized in other parts of cells.
The human egg cell originates from primary follicles in the ovary. Only one out of 10 to 20 primary follicles matures into ovum in each monthly female cycle. Each ovum contains half of the genetic makeup and fuses with sperms to gain the second half. Consequently, the zygote or resulting cell has a full genetic makeup, and later it divides to form an embryo.