What Is the Organ System That Breaks Down Food and Absorbs Nutrients Called?

The system of organs responsible for breaking down food and absorbing nutrients is the digestive system. The stomach, small intestine, colon and anus are all part of the digestive system, which also removes solid waste from the body.

The mouth and esophagus also play a role in the digestive system through chewing and swallowing. In addition, the saliva inside the mouth begins to break food down before it reaches the stomach. Once inside the stomach, food is further broken down by acids. It then moves through the small and large intestines, where nutrients are absorbed. The internal and external sphincters, which are part of the anus, help regulate stool movement.