Olduvai Gorge is important due to the famous discoveries by Mary and Louis Leakey of early humans from about 2 million years ago in the area. This led to a documentation of the evolutionary history of vertebrate fauna, the ancestors that used stone tools and the environment.
Research on this site, which is located in Northern Tanzania, led to the discovery of unparalleled wealth of paleontological and archaeological data for the study of phases of the evolution of the early man. This was the first site where the discovery of the culture of the earliest stone tools was made. It was also among the first sites where the discovery of the earliest Acheulean was made, and the traditional view of the transition from Oldowan and Acheulean was established here.
One of the topics that the modern Paleoanthropologists discuss today is the disappearance of the culture of the early man (Oldowan), and how it was substituted by the emerging technology (Acheulean). As a result, a project known as the Olduvai Geochronology and Archaeology project was established to merge an international team of geologists and archaeologists with one goal of studying the mechanisms that led to the existence of the Acheulean in the Olduvai Gorge.