The ocean ecosystem is also called the marine biome, and it makes up around 70 percent of Earth. The ocean ecosystem contains saltwater and includes the five main oceans and some bays and gulfs. Other things located within an ocean ecosystem include mangrove forests, barrier islands and estuaries.
The ocean ecosystem plays a major role in the weather around the world. The top layer of the ocean is known as the euphotic zone and is the warmest part of the ecosystem because it receives plenty of sunlight. This helps facilitate plant growth, which keeps the ecosystem healthy. The average temperature of the ocean biome is 39 degrees Fahrenheit.
As of 2015, there have been more than 1 million plant and animal species discovered living in the world's oceans. Climate in the ocean biome varies and can include subtropical, temperate, polar and monsoon. Specific plant and animal species live in different climates and cannot survive in other areas with different climate.
The largest ocean ecosystem in the world is the Pacific Ocean, which covers around 30 percent of Earth's surface. Throughout all the ocean biomes, there is a large variety of water temperatures and water chemistry and nutrients which help maintain the variety of life specific to that area.