The nucleolus contains all of the information needed for DNA replication, flow of proteins and RNA, all while controlling the synthesis of protein and cell replication. The nucleolus has several parts: the nuclear envelope, the chromatin and the actual DNA.Continue Reading
The nuclear envelope is full of pores that the cell uses to regulate the flow of material in and out of the nucleus. This material can be macromolecules, such as protein or RNA. These materials are limited in how much is allowed to come in and out of the nucleus.
There are exceptions to this process, which apply to things like water, ATP and ions. These exceptions are small molecules which do not carry information like the macromolecules. This is just one way of the nucleus controlling the information that flows in and out of it.
Most important in the nucleus is the DNA, which is made up of long chains called chromosomes. These are protected by the nucleus envelope and are required for the process of transcription or protein synthesis. It is also the crucial element of cell division, both the mitosis and meiosis. The cell being able to access the DNA and reproduce itself is key in many aspects of the health and growth of organisms.Learn more about Cells
The nucleus controls protein synthesis in a cell's cytoplasm in the sense that the genetic codes contained in the nucleus determine the sequence of amino acids that are assembled to build the proteins. This is the only aspect of protein assembly directly controlled by the nucleus, while other mechanisms and structures in the cell are responsible for detecting which proteins are needed. The nucleus serves as a protein code database.Full Answer >
Before a cell can begin mitosis it must grow and create proteins, RNA and copies of DNA. These activities occur in a stage of the cell cycle called interphase.Full Answer >
The nuclear membrane, also called the nuclear envelope, surrounds the nucleus in a double layer with multiple pores that regulate the flow of protein and RNA. The pores also allow water, ATP and smaller molecules to flow freely through the membrane.Full Answer >
Scitable explains that the central role of ribonucleic acid, or RNA, is to convert instructions written in the code of the organism's DNA into proteins. However, RNA is also involved in a number of other processes, such as signaling other cells and functioning as catalysts in cellular chemistry. Additionally, the ribosomes, which convert RNA into structural proteins, are themselves composed primarily of RNA.Full Answer >