Cytosine, uracil and thymine are nitrogenous bases belonging to the pyrimidine group. Accompanied by the purine bases of adenine and guanine, cytosine and thymine are nitrogenous bases used to construct DNA. Uracil is a nitrogenous base in RNA.Continue Reading
Nitrogenous bases are categorized by their chemical structure. The atoms in cytosine, uracil and thymine arrange themselves in a single ring. Guanine and adenine are larger bases with atoms arranged in a double ring.
Nucleotides are composed of a sugar, a phosphate and a nitrogenous base. Each nucleotide links with another through a sugar and phosphate pairing to create one side of DNA. Cytosine bonds with guanine, and thymine bonds with adenine to create a double-stranded, ladder-shaped structure. The arrangement of the nitrogenous bases correlates to the type of genetic information stored, resulting in genetic code that determines an organism's characteristics.
RNA consists of a single strand of nucleotides connected by sugar and phosphate bonds. The nitrogenous bases on RNA are complementary to the sequence of nitrogenous bases on a strand of DNA. These complements are created during the process of translation so RNA can carry the instructions from DNA out of the nucleus to ribosomes to create proteins. During this process, the nitrogenous base thymine is replaced with uracil on the RNA strand.Learn more about Acids & Bases