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# What is Newton's law of universal gravitation?

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Newton's law of universal gravitation states that the force of gravity is a universal force between all objects proportional to both masses and the square of the distance between them. This law can be expressed with the equation F₁₂ (m¹ * m²) / d².

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Newton's law of universal gravitation was later improved by the addition of the gravitational constant, G, so the equation can be written as F = (G * m¹* m²) / d² where G is the gravitational constant (6.673 x 10-¹¹ N m²/kg²). The gravitational constant was determined by Henry Cavendish more than 100 years after Newton's law. By using the equation combining Newton's law of proportionality with the gravitational constant, the gravitational force between any two objects can be determined.

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## Related Questions

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The force of gravity between two objects will decrease as the distance between them increases. The two most important factors affecting the gravitational force between two objects are their mass and the distance between their centers. As mass increases, so does the force of gravity, but an increase in distance reflects an inverse proportionality, which causes that force to decrease exponentially.

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The force of gravity between two objects can be increased by reducing the distance between them. The force of gravity is influenced by the masses of the two objects and the gap between them. Gravitational force generally increases as objects become more massive and draw closer together.

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The force of gravity between two objects is determined by the mass of each object and the distance between their centers. Objects with a greater amount of mass will exert a greater degree of gravitational pull, but as the distance between two objects increases, the gravitational force between them lessens. The significance of distance with regard to large masses, such as planets, plays an important role in the science of Astronomy.