Neutral substances are chemicals that have no properties of either acids or bases, have equal parts hydrogen and hydronium ions and don't change the color of litmus paper or other acid-base indicators. Neutral substances include water, glucose solutions and salt solutions. These chemicals have a pH of 7.0 on a scale of 14. In terms of toxicity, neutral substances are generally harmless to the touch.Continue Reading
Pure water has no ions in it whatsoever and serves as the main solvent in which acids and bases are dissolved. A sugar solution is made of molecules of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms bound together in a crystalline pattern. A salt solution in pure water has dissolved sodium and chlorine ions.
Acids and bases have higher concentrations of either hydrogen ions with a plus charge or hydronium ions with a plus charge. Hydronium molecules consist of three atoms of hydrogen bound to one atom of oxygen. Acids have more hydrogen ions, and bases have more hydronium ions. Neutral substances have neither ion, or an equal number of both ions, to cancel out any acid or base properties.
While a neutral solution has a pH of 7.0, strong acids have pH numbers closer to zero and strong bases have pH measurements close to 14.Learn more about Acids & Bases
Substances that release hydrogen ions when dissolved in water are called acids, while those that release hydroxide ions are called bases. The relative concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions in a solution determines how acidic or basic the solution is.Full Answer >
Acids usually exhibit a sour taste, an ability to change litmus paper from blue to red, react with bases to yield a salt with water, and react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas. Examples of common household acids are lemon juice, vinegar and citric acid.Full Answer >
Acids and bases both have the ability to conduct electricity, and when both of them are dissolved in water they form ions that make the water more conductive. When disassociated in water, both acids and bases become neutralized.Full Answer >
Strong acids and bases are characterized by the way their constituent molecules are both fully ionized in a solution. Only a small number of acids and bases break down into nothing but their constituent ions when dissolved in water. Most of the seven strong acids, and eight strong bases, have some use in industrial applications.Full Answer >