A moon schedule is available at MoonConnection.com, StarDate.com or Space.com. The moon goes through eight different phases every 29.5 days. The modern calendar month is based on the moon's orbit through the eight phases.
The new moon occurs when the moon aligns directly between the Earth and the sun. It is closest to the sun and signifies the beginning of a new month. The next phases to occur are waxing crescent, first quarter and waxing gibbous, leading up to the full moon. After the full moon, the remaining phases replicate the previous phases and are named accordingly: waning gibbous, last quarter and waxing crescent.