Translational and rotational motion, as well as bond stretching and bending, are the basic types of motion within molecules. Different molecules undergo different superpositions of the basic motions.Continue Reading
All molecules are constantly in motion. The degrees of freedom of this motion depend on the molecules' phase of matter. Solids have the least range of motion, followed by liquids, then gases. The temperature of the molecules is an indication of their kinetic energy. Higher temperature directly increases the translational motion of the molecules, leading to higher velocity of motion in liquid and gas molecules and higher frequency and amplitude of vibration in solid molecules.
The Boltzmann relation linearly relates macroscopic temperature to molecular kinetic energy through the Boltzmann constant. A linear increase in temperature is accompanied by a linear increase in the average kinetic energy of all molecules in a system.
Rotational motion can involve the rotation of the entire molecule or the rotation of parts of the molecule relative to one another in torsional motion. Such motion can only occur in gas and liquid phases, as molecules are bonded in fixed positions in solids.
The motions of molecules determine many physical properties including color, which is determined by photon absorption and re-emission through the bonds, and chemical reactivity, which is determined by the amount of energy needed to form or break the bonds.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
The molecule known as CH4, or methane, is affected by van der Waals forces between individual molecules. Van der Waals forces are created when the molecule temporarily becomes electrically charged due to the natural movement of electrons across the shared bonds of the atoms making up the molecule.Full Answer >
The main types of biochemical reactions are reduction and oxidation, water addition and removal, bond breaking reactions and the movement of groups between molecules. There are many possible types of biochemical reactions, but they all belong to one of those four categories.Full Answer >
The chemical elements most likely to form covalent bonds are those that share electrons, such as carbon, as opposed to those that take them from another element to form an ionic bond. In general, they are nonmetals with similar electronegativities. They are located toward the center of the periodic table, according to HowStuffWorks.Full Answer >
The larger the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the more ionic the bond. This is because more electronegative elements (fluorine, for example) are more easily able to take and retain electrons in ionic reactions.Full Answer >