Mitosis occurs in the cell nuclei of eukaryotic cells that are not related to reproduction, while meiosis takes place in the cell nuclei of eukaryotic cells that are related to reproduction. Cells not associated with reproduction are called somatic cells, and cells associated with reproduction are known as gamete cells.
Mitosis is the process where one cell divides into two cells that are genetically identical to the original cell. The body can grow and repair itself as a result of mitosis. Five phases take place during mitosis: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase.
Prokaryotes, or organisms that lack cells with a membrane-bound nucleus, are not able to undergo mitosis. Instead, they create new cells through a process called binary fission.
Meiosis is the process that divides cells to produce gametes. In humans, the male gamete is sperm and the female gamete is an egg. A cell produced in meiosis has half the chromosomes of the original cell. This is because the male gamete and the female gamete fuse together during fertilization. Fertilization provides the zygote with the appropriate amount of chromosomes. There are two phases during meiosis: meiosis I and meiosis II.
Prokaryotes do not produce gametes through meiosis. They use a process known as transformation to produce new genetic material for their offspring.