DNA replication is a method of making many copies of DNA. The process starts at defined DNA sites. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory studied all of the steps in the process of DNA replication.
The DNA replication process starts with the cells using what is termed a "protein machine" called the "origin recognition complex," or ORC. The ORC begins as a crescent-shaped protein complex and bends itself around the DNA. When the ORC joins the protein activator, the protein allows the unwinding of the double-stranded DNA, permitting other proteins to copy it.