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What is meant by uplift in geology?

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In geology, uplift refers to a considerable vertical movement of the Earth's crust and is one of the primary factors in the formation of mountains and other prominent landscape features. Some of the more spectacular examples of uplifts in the Earth's crust are the results of tectonic plate interactions that are involved in the process called orogenesis. Major mountain ranges, such as the Alps, were produced by the orogenic uplift resulting from a collision of one continental plate with another.

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The orogenic uplift that helps create mountains is a result of structural deformations talking place in the Earth's crust and upper mantle that can involve faulting, folding or magma-related processes. These are constructive processes, but vertical uplifts on the Earth's crust are also subjected to destructive processes such as glacial activity and erosion. Newer mountains tend to be tall and steep because these destructive forces have not had ample time to wear them down.

Mountain-building, or orogeny, can span tens of millions of years, and it can result in sections of the Earth's crust at the bottom of the ocean experiencing sufficient uplift to become major mountain ranges. The extent of how considerable the force of an orogenic uplift can be is demonstrated by the example of marine limestone, once part of the ocean floor, which can now be found more than 29,000 feet above seal level at the peak of Mount Everest.

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