Vanadium has five valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons that an element gives up or gains during a chemical bond with another element. Vanadium can be found five elements in from the left on the periodic table, which is a way of showing that it has five valence electrons.
Vanadium was discovered in Mexico in 1801 by Andres Manuel del Rio and again in 1831 by Nils Sefström. Its name comes from the Scandinavian goddess of beauty, Vanadis. Vanadium is a silver-gray metal. The abbreviated electron configuration for vanadium is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The abbreviated electron configuration shows where an element's valence electrons are located; for vanadium, it is on the 4s sub-shell (2) and the 3d sub-shell (3).