A normal human karyotype typically contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Abnormalities in the number of chromosomes may result in genetic defects or serious health issues.
Each human cell contains 46 chromosomes, which are responsible for genetic expression during reproduction of cells. DNA located in the chromosomes is replicated and copied to new cells and determines specific cell functions. Reproductive cells contain specific chromosomes that determine the gender of the offspring. An individual possessing or lacking the proper amount of these chromosomes may develop health complications such as developmental disorders, Down syndrome or Turner's syndrome. These health issues may result in stunted development of the brain and body, infertility, or heart and kidney problems.