To make a DNA model using pipe cleaners, use two different-colored pipe cleaners cut into short lengths, then attach them to the longer pipe cleaners to make a ladder; twist this ladder to make the double-helix. The process takes approximately 30 minutes.Continue Reading
Choose two colors for the bases and two colors for the polynucleotide strands. Cut the pipe cleaners for the base into approximately 3 1/2 inches. For a 2-foot-long DNA model with the bases 2 inches apart, you need at least 12 base pieces.
Make each strand approximately 2 feet long by connecting multiple pipe cleaners. On a flat surface, place the two strands about 3 inches apart. Determine how you want to order the bases by color onto the strands. Lay the bases between the strands, starting at the top and leaving 2 inches of space between each base. Attach the ends of each base to the strands by wrapping the ends around the strands.
To complete the familiar double-helix look of a DNA model, twist the ladder by holding the top with one hand and using your other hand to turn the bottom of the ladder. Carefully rearrange the pipe cleaners to enhance the shape.
A rigid chain of alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphates makes up the sides of the DNA ladder. The rungs of the DNA ladder consist of four nitrogenous bases.Full Answer >
The steps, or rungs, of the DNA ladder are made up of two bases joined together with either two or three weak hydrogen bonds. The rails of the ladder are made up of alternating sugar and phosphate molecules. The rungs are comprised of two bases between sugar molecules.Full Answer >
The sides of the DNA ladder are made up of a combination of alternating sugars and phosphates. These molecules are what holds the rungs of DNA together on the ladder.Full Answer >
The substances making up the sides of the DNA ladder are alternating phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugar molecules. Phosphate groups are inorganic molecules made up of one atom of phosphorus chemically bonded to several oxygen atoms. Deoxyribose is a type of sugar featuring five carbon atoms.Full Answer >