There are numerous factors that influence the Earth's climate, which include the temperature, atmospheric conditions, ice, land and land masses. The more sulfur oxide and other reflective material in the atmosphere, the cooler the Earth's climate, due to the particles reflecting the sun's rays away from the planet.
The temperature of the planet is affected by these materials, but also by the Earth's position in relation to the sun. The Earth's positioning changes very slowly around the sun, which also affects the climate on the planet by changing the amount of energy that the planet absorbs. As ice melts or builds up, the water around it is affected along with the atmosphere near it, which in turn influences the air and temperatures around the world.