Osseous tissue refers to the rigid, calcified connective tissue found in the bones of higher vertebrates. This type of tissue is commonly referred to as bone tissue.
Connective tissue is the most predominant type of tissue in the human body, which is classified based on its associated matrix and cellular components. The different types of connective tissue include areolar, blood, adipose, cartilage, loose connective, dense connective and osseous. Bone tissue mainly functions for energy and mineral storage, support, protection, movement and blood cell generation.
Osseous tissue produces a hard, bony matrix that comprises an organic and inorganic component. The organic constituent is primarily made up of osteocollagenous fibers, which are interconnected by a glycoprotein compound called glycosaminoglycans. The inorganic constituent chiefly contains calcium phosphate that crystallizes between the special glue that links the osteocollagenous fibers.
The cellular components of osseous tissue are categorized into three types: osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts. Osteoblasts are commonly found in the periosteum. These types of bone cells are related to new bone formation. Osteocytes are located within the matrix, specifically in the lacuna. This space contains canaliculi, which are tiny passages that connect osteocytes in developing bones and allows movement of nutrients in mature bones. Osteoclasts are located on the exterior of bone tissue, typically in Howship's lacunae. These cells are thought to function in bone resorption processes.